Why the braking system makes noise?

Four theoretical methods for braking noise research

kaidon brake , 2020 Jan 7th

 

Classification of brake noise

 

Brake noise can be roughly divided into three types:

1) Low frequency noise

The "noise" sound from start braking to fully stop. This kind of sound belongs to low frequency noise, the frequency is below 1000Hz, which is mainly caused by the resonance of the brake caliper.

2) Low frequency squeaking

Squeaking during braking. This is the braking noise with a frequency of 1 ~ 6kHz, mainly due to the resonance of the brake disc, and the sound is very harsh.

3) High-frequency squeaking

"Beep" noise when braking. It is braking noise with a frequency above 7 kHz, which is mainly caused by the elastic vibration of the friction pad.

 

 

Regularity of brake noise

Although the factors that affect the braking noise are more complicated, through years of experimental verification and experience accumulation, previous people have concluded that the occurrence of braking noise generally has the following rules:

1) Vehicle's brake are prone to make squeaking noise when braking at low speeds and before fully stop.

2) Friction materials with substantially the same coefficient of friction have randomness in the tendency to make squeaking noise. The same friction material may have a tendency to squeaking when installed on one brake, but it is very likely that there is no noise when installed on another brake.

3) With the increase of friction coefficient, the tendency of brake squeaking noise increases, and the frequency of squeaking noise increases slightly with the increase of braking pressure. 

4) Drum brakes are usually more prone to make noise than disc brakes.

5) Attaching a damping material to the brake pad bottom plate (steel back) can suppress the high-frequency noise of the brake to a certain extent, but it does not always achieve a significant improvement.

6) The vibration that produces the brake noise is always coupled in the direction of friction and sliding.

 

 

 

 

Theoretical methods of braking noise research

 

There are four main theories of braking noise research:

  • Friction coefficiency-Relative Velocity Negative Slope Theory

  • Sprag-Slip theory

  • Modal coupling theory

  • Tribology theory

 

 

1) Friction coefficiency-Relative Velocity Negative Slope Theory

where:     

  • m- Mass of the rigid friction plate 
  • c- Structural damping
  • k- Spring stiffness
  • Fk- friction level

Note: It is only important to explain when the vibration frequency is lower than 100Hz

 

 

2) Sprag-Slip theory

Basic principle: The structure of the entire friction system is unstable due to self-locking (Sprag) between the friction surfaces, which causes vibration and friction noise.

It is suitable for the case where the friction coefficient μ has nothing to do with the sliding speed v when the system has unstable vibration.

When θ satisfies certain conditions, that is, when μ = cotθ, the friction force Ff will tend to infinity at this time, and the relative motion becomes theoretically impossible, resulting in the occurrence of self-locking. Vibrations that are perpendicular to the friction surface are ignored, so there are obvious flaws.

 

 

3) Modal coupling theory

Basic principle: Use modal analysis to study braking noise.

However, most of the research on braking noise in recent years has focused on the finite element complex eigenvalue analysis of the braking system. When any two natural frequencies of the braking system tend to be consistent, the system generates unstable vibration and generates squeaking noise. , And the natural frequency tends to be consistent is a modal coupling. Therefore, it is generally accepted internationally that modal coupling is the most likely mechanism for squeaking noise.

 

 

4) Tribology theory

Basic principle: The problem of braking noise is not only related to the classical theory of friction and vibration but also closely related to the theory and knowledge of tribological systems.

  • Friction noise is caused by the self-excited vibration of some components of the braking system due to the adhesion-sliding effect and the negative slope characteristics of the friction force-speed curve, not the component self-locking
  • The contact stiffness, the friction coefficient between the brake pads and the brake discs, and the stiffness of the brake discs and the brake pads have an important effect on friction noise.

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

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Why the braking system makes noise?

Although the factors that affect the braking noise are more complicated, through years of experimental verification and experience accumulation, previous people have concluded that the occurrence of braking noise generally has the following rules: https://bit.ly/2uidfF1


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